The Plaza Agreement of 1985 and Louvre Accord of 1987 are Examples of International Economic Cooperation
The Plaza Agreement of 1985 and the Louvre Accord of 1987 were international economic agreements that sought to stabilize exchange rates and promote global economic growth. These agreements were signed by the Group of Five (G5) industrialized nations, including the United States, Japan, West Germany, France, and the United Kingdom, and were a key example of international economic cooperation during the late 20th century.
The Plaza Agreement, signed on September 22, 1985, was a response to the economic challenges of the early 1980s. The agreement aimed to reduce the value of the US dollar against other major currencies, as the strong dollar was making American exports more expensive and hurting US economic growth. The G5 nations agreed to intervene in the foreign exchange markets to sell US dollars and buy other currencies, effectively pushing down the value of the dollar and boosting the value of other currencies.
The Plaza Agreement was successful in achieving its goal of reducing the value of the dollar. In the months following the agreement, the dollar fell by around 50% against the Japanese yen and the German mark, and the US trade deficit narrowed significantly. However, the agreement also had some unintended consequences, such as higher inflation in Japan and an increase in protectionist sentiment in the US Congress.
The Louvre Accord, signed on February 22, 1987, was a follow-up to the Plaza Agreement. This time, the G5 nations agreed to cooperate to prevent excessive currency fluctuations and promote exchange rate stability. The Group of Seven (G7) nations, which included Canada and Italy in addition to the G5 nations, also pledged to promote economic growth, job creation, and international trade.
The Louvre Accord was seen as a success at the time, as it helped to stabilize exchange rates and reduce currency volatility. However, some criticized the agreement for placing too much emphasis on exchange rate stability at the expense of domestic economic policies, and for not doing enough to address the structural imbalances in the global economy.
Overall, the Plaza Agreement and the Louvre Accord were important examples of international cooperation in the field of economics. These agreements helped to stabilize exchange rates, reduce currency volatility, and promote global economic growth. While they were not without their flaws and critics, these agreements represent a key moment in the history of international economic policy.